Marble is a composition formed by the recrystallization of limestone and dolomitic limestone as a result of metamorphism.

Marble is a composition formed by the recrystallization of limestone and dolomitic limestone as a result of metamorphism. 90-98% of their composition consists of CaCO3 (Calcium carbonate). It contains a low amount of MgCO3 (Magnesium carbonate). The main mineral in marbles consisting of CaCO3 crystals is "Calcite". It may also contain small amounts of silica, silica, feldspar, iron oxide, mica, fluorine and organic substances. Their colors are generally white and greyish. However, due to foreign substances, they can also be in colors such as yellow, pink, red, bluish, brownish and black. When examined under the microscope, it is seen that it consists of "Calcite Crystals" that are tightly interlocked.

“Marble” in industrial sense; Any type of stone that can be cut and polished is considered marble. Regardless of the type and content of the stone, the ability to obtain large-sized blocks, cutting and polishing is sufficient for that stone to be considered marble. Rocks derived from magma, such as granite, diabase, leucite syenite, fanolite and serpentines, are thus included in the definition of marble.

Marble in the Mining Law, which came into force after being published in the Official Gazette No. 25483 dated June 5, 2004; Group mines; Decorative stones are included in Travertine, Limestone, Dolomite, Calcite, Granite, Syenite, Andesite, Basalt and similar stones.

Marble is found in many works built in the periods before Christ. Although the types of marble used in these works are very diverse, it is noteworthy that their sizes are very large. Marble is frequently encountered in historical and ancient temples, marble statues, palaces, Egyptian pharaoh tombs, pyramids, walls, castles, stadiums and open-air theatres.

Many of the marble deposits and quarries in Turkey were operated by the Romans, Byzantines and Greeks before Christ. A large part of the marble deposits in Turkey, especially [5] the historically famous Afyon-İsçehisar - Bacakale, Denizli - Honaz, Çal, Kaklık, Kocabaş, Gürlek, Sarayköy, İzmir- Efes, Kütahya - Altuntaş - Çalça, Bileceik - Gülümbe - Lümbe It has spread to all regions, especially Bursa - Iznik, Izmit - Gebze, Ankara - Koçhisar, Yozgat - Akdağı, Niğde - Gümüşler.
While the civilizations that dominated Anatolia used some of this marble in buildings and works within the country, they also sent most of it to Europe.

Classification of marble
Granites of various colors, diabases, travertines containing small amounts of (ca) and (mg), serpatines, dolomitic limestones with high (mg) content and sedimentary limestones containing fossils are considered to be in the marble class, although they have nothing to do with marble. one] Marbles have different mineralogical, chemical and structural properties depending on the conditions during formation. For this reason, they are classified in different ways.

According to mineral grains
1.         Fine grained marble (1 mm)
2.         Medium grain marble (1–5 mm)
3.         Coarse grained marble (5 mm)
4.         Large grain marble (1–2 cm)

According to mineral composition and ratios
1.         Marble; It contains 95% calcite (CaCO3). It has a massive structure and granular texture. It is a metamorphic rock formed by the precipitation and petrification of calcium carbonate minerals on the seabed.
2.         Calcschist; It contains 60-70% calcite. It has a schist structure and directional texture. It may contain other minerals such as chlorite, epidote, mka and lepidolite.
3.         Spolen; It contains 80% calcite. It has a schist structure and directional texture. It may contain other minerals such as flaapit, tremotile, diopside, plagioclase and grena.
4.         Marble-Skarn; It contains 80-90% calcite. It has a massive structure and granular texture. It may contain other minerals such as epidote, diopside, grena, olivine, and plagioclase.

According to their structure and texture
1.         Solid marble; It has a compact appearance, is fine and coarse grained.
2.         Laminal marble; In the colored banded appearance, fine-grained bands contain different minerals or elements.
3.         Schist marble; It has a leafy structure and contains a significant amount of mica.
4.         Brecciated marble; It is filled with re-broken secondary minerals. Main fillings may have different colors and mineral contents.

1.         Igneous rocks (Granite, diabase, syenite, etc.)
2.         Metamorphic rocks (Genuine marbles, recrystallized limestones, etc.)
3.         Sedimentary rocks (Travertines, onyx marbles, conglomerate (=conglomerate) etc.)

Stones of magmatic origin
Although they are not actually marble, they are rocks of magmatic origin that are considered within the industrial definition of marble, have a beautiful appearance, accept polish and can be obtained from blocks of sufficient size. They contain quartz, hornblende and other silicates. Therefore, block production, cutting and polishing are very difficult. But they are more durable than other types of marble. Granite, diabase, leucite syenite and serpentines are the most well-known magma-origin marble samples in Turkey.

At the exit points of the CaCO3 magma (hot spring waters) where they come into contact with the atmosphere, they form CaCO3 precipitates in the form of amorphous or very small crystals, depending on the pressure at the time of emergence, the temperature of the water and the density of the mineral salts they contain. If the temperature of the magma water is too high and the calcium bicarbonate rate is too high; precipitation will occur rapidly. The formation that occurs in this way is called travertine precipitation. These stones, which contain light or large amounts of plant stems and leaves, as well as fossils of sea and land creatures, are called "Limestone Tuff". The best example of Limestone Tuffs; It is a type that is known to be unique in the world and is known as chocolate or cappuccino depending on the producer, produced only in Turkey, especially in Denizli and its surroundings. Travertines constitute important rocks in terms of construction. These are applied in large blocks and are also used as coating material by cutting.[11][12]

Travertine application types
1.         Honing: It is the process of making the surface of travertine tiles semi-matte with certain abrasives. A well-honed surface is neither shiny enough to reflect light nor rough matte, resembling a satin texture.
2.         Polishing: It is the process of reaching the surface of the travertine tile to a perfectly smooth surface that reflects light with certain abrasive groups.
3.         Brushing (Patinato): It is the abrasion of the surface of the travertine tile with special abrasive brushes until it acquires an aged texture.
4.         Edge Breaking: It is the process of slightly breaking the edges of the travertine tile through mechanical processes to give it an antique, aged texture.
5.         Tumbled - Tumbled: It is the mechanical means of giving travertine products the erosion and worn-out appearance that they will be exposed to over the ages.
6.         Filling: It is the filling of naturally occurring cavities or pores in the travertine with special cement or chemical substances.
7.         Cross - American Cut: It is the cut made parallel to the layers of travertine. This type of cutting gives a static texture appearance with less movement.
8.         Vein Cutting: It is the cut made perpendicular to the layers of travertine. All the natural beauty and linear structure of travertine are revealed to your eyes.

They are semi-depth rocks of deep magma origin, forming a group of hard natural stones with an appearance of green and shades of green. The silica ratio in the chemical composition varies between 45-52%. Mineral compositions consist of proxene and plagioclase. They never contain quartz and K-feldspars.
Syenites; They are roughly known as “quartz-free granite”. They are named according to their colored elements. Such as biotot syenite, horblende syenite, augite syenite and leucite syenite. These stones, which differ from granites by the decrease in quartz, rarely have a porphyritic texture, are coarse or fine grained, and are not soft.[14]

They are formed by the hydration of magma rocks such as olivine and olivine peridotite, gabbro and diabase under the influence of water. Sometimes they occur when dolomite is affected by hot SiO2 water. Their SiO2 content is less than 45%. Colors; green, yellowish, red, brown and blackish. They generally have a spotted and mottled appearance due to their different colors. They are quite dense and hard.

Onyx Marbles
If the temperature of magma brought CaCO3 water is quite low, contains more mineral salts and the amount of water is low; The sedimentation process will occur more slowly. Stone formed under these conditions; It is crystalline, dense and quite transparent. These stones are called onyx marble or "Water Marble". They are usually white, red, yellow and green in color and translucent. Light can pass to a depth of 1-3.5 cm. Real Onyx; It is a Chalcedun stone whose composition is silica. It is used as jewelry. Onyx marble is; Although its structure is more or less similar to Real Onyx, its composition consists of CaCO3. The crystal grains are Aragonite.

Other types of marble
•           Aquitaine marble
•           Carrara marble
•           Cipollino marble
•           Cockeysville marble
•           Connemara marble
•           Creole marble
•           Etowah marble
•           Fillet marble
•           Yule marble
•           Wunsiedel marble
•           Tuckahoe marble
•           Alabama marble
•           Swedish green marble
•           Pavonazzetto marble
•           Paryan marble
•           Nero Marquina marble
•           Naxos marble
•           Makrana marble
•           Prokonnesian marble

Marble production
Located in the Alpine belt, where the world's richest natural stone formations are located, Turkey has a wide variety of marble reserves. In addition to these resources, Turkey is among the most important natural stone producers in the world with its developing industry and the technology it uses in production.
These important reserves are spread over a wide region throughout Anatolia and Thrace. Afyon, Denizli, Bilecik, Balıkesir, Muğla, Amasya, Elazığ and Diyarbakır are the provinces where the reserves are concentrated. Marble reserves with over 80 different structures and over 120 different colors and patterns have been identified in Turkey. More than 500 quarries, over 900 factories and around 5000 workshops operate in the sector.